Indonesia's Performance on the Resource Governance Index
Indonesia received a "partial" score of 66, ranking 14th out of 58 countries. Relatively high scores on the Institutional & Legal Setting and Safeguards & Quality Controls components were offset by a low Enabling Environment score.
(out of 58)
(out of 100)
|16||Institutional & Legal Setting||76|
|11||Safeguards & Quality Controls||75|
Institutional & Legal Setting (Rank: 16th/58, Score: 76/100) learn more
Indonesia's "satisfactory" score of 76 is due to comprehensive legislation and a competitive licensing process.
Most oil and gas companies sign production-sharing contracts; mining companies receive licenses in exchange for royalties and taxes. The 2009 Mining Law requires open bidding for mining licenses, but has yet to be implemented.
The Finance Ministry collects payments from oil companies and deposits the funds in the national treasury. The director general of mining collects most non-tax mining payments; the director general of taxation collects mining taxes.
Government agencies publish all legislation related to natural resource extraction online. However, these laws do not include detailed regulations on fiscal terms. Indonesia requires environmental impact assessments, but only makes them public for a brief comment period after licenses are granted. Indonesia is an Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative candidate; its first report is due in 2013.
Reporting Practices (Rank: 15th/58, Score: 66/100) learn more
Indonesia's "partial" score of 66 reflects comprehensive reporting on a number of indicators, but a lack of contract transparency and insufficient disclosure of subnational transfers of resource revenues.
Some information on petroleum auction rounds is published, but contract terms are not. The 2009 Mining Law reduced transparency in the mining sector; only contracts that predate the law are available, and only by request.
The Finance Ministry publishes some information on oil companies' operations and disaggregated revenue streams. The Energy and Mineral Resources Ministry provides data on reserves, production volumes, and prices, but does not include information on extractive revenues. The annual report of BPMIGAS, the former regulator, contains information on reserves, production, and social initiatives, but only limited data on company payments.
Safeguards & Quality Controls (Rank: 11th/58, Score: 75/100) learn more
With significant audit requirements and government monitoring, but uneven quality of government reports, Indonesia earned a "satisfactory" score of 75.
While government regulators have been reluctant to comply with freedom of information laws, Indonesia's parliament actively oversees the extractive sector. The legislature has passed a number of laws aimed at limiting corruption, but there is no specific requirement that officials responsible for overseeing petroleum and mining companies disclose their financial interests in the sector. National law limits the discretion of licensing agencies, but there is no mechanism to appeal their decisions.
An independent auditor conducts a semiannual audit of state accounts; its findings are reported to parliament and published online. An internal auditing agency reviews petroleum and mining company payments but does not make its reports public.
Enabling Environment (Rank: 21st/58, Score: 46/100) learn more
Indonesia received a "weak" score of 66, the product of especially low rankings for the rule of law and corruption control.
State-Owned Companies (Rank: 9th/45, Score: 86/100) learn more
PT Pertamina, an entirely state-owned company, is involved in the upstream and downstream oil and gas sectors. There are also three partially privatized state mining companies: PT Aneka Tambang, PT Timah, and PT Bukit Asam. The government subsidizes some of the companies' activities; expenditures are not included in the national budget despite legal requirements to do so. All four companies publish somewhat technical audited annual reports that include information on production and revenue generation.
Subnational Transfers (Rank: 13th/30, Score: 64/100) learn more
The central government transfers revenue to local authorities based on regional petroleum extraction. The Finance Ministry publishes information on these allocations, but the reports are very technical and lack narrative explanations. Local authorities rarely disclose information about the transfers. Rules for transfers are defined by law and followed in practice.
INSTITUTIONAL & LEGAL SETTING
SAFEGUARDS & QUALITY CONTROLS
To explore all data and compare country scores, use the RGI Data Tool.
Key Economic Indicators
|GDP (constant 2011 international $ billion)||210.6||323.7||846.8|
|GDP per capita, PPP (constant 2005 international $)||2,623||3,102||4,094|
|Oil and gas revenues (% total government revenue)||22||18|
|Extractive exports (% total exports)||30||36||42|
|Sources: Oil and gas revenue as share of total government revenue from the Economist Intelligence Unit and the International Monetary Fund. All other data form the World Bank. Oil and gas revenues 2005 data from 2007.|